Phase contrast is an optical contrast technique for making unstained phase objects (e.g. flat cells) visible under the optical microscope. Cells that appear inconspicuous and transparent in brightfield can be viewed in high contrast and rich detail using a phase contrast microscope.
Differential Interference Contrast
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a good alternative to brightfield microscopy for gaining proper images of unstained specimens that often only provide a weak image in brightfield.
Integrated Modulation Contrast
Hoffman modulation contrast has established itself as a standard for the observation of unstained, low-contrast biological specimens. Its innovative technical implementation permits significantly simpler handling and greater flexibility in deployment.
永生细胞系的一个特征就是无限增殖。因此，它们必须时不时进行分裂 (传代) 并转移至单独的培养器皿中。
通常，培养的细胞在用于实验前就进行了基因改造。例如，借助 转染操作，研究人员为所需要的蛋白质添加 荧光标记 ，以便通过显微镜将其可视化。
不管是精确跟踪培养皿中单个细胞的发育，筛选多个分析，获取单分子级的清晰度，还是梳理复杂过程的行为，DMi8 S 系统都能让您看得更多、看得更快，让您发现隐藏的信息。
Many fields of biomedical research, like cancer research, drug development and tissue engineering, require the use of living cells to perform a variety of assays. Mammalian cell cultures are an essential tool in biology because they allow rapid growth and proliferation of different cell types for experimental analysis.
The prospects of fluorescence microscopy changed dramatically with the discovery of fluorescent proteins in the 1950s. The starting point was the detection of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) by Osamo Shimomura. Hundreds of GFP mutants later, the range of fluorescent proteins reaches from the blue to the red spectrum.
Fluorescence is an effect which was first described by George Gabriel Stokes in 1852. He observed that fluorite begins to glow after being illuminated with ultraviolet light. Fluorescence is a form of photoluminescence which describes the emission of photons by a material after being illuminated with light. The emitted light is of longer wavelength than the exciting light. This effect is called the Stokes shift.